Spring is a mechanical component that uses the elasticity and structural characteristics of materials to work through deformation and energy storage. It can be used for shock absorption, clamping, force measurement, etc. Springs have wide applications in various components
1. Classification Of Spring
Springs have various types and can be classified into coil spring, leaf spring, spiral spring, and disc spring. Among them, cylindrical spiral spring has a simple structure, convenient manufacturing process, and the widest applications, which is divided into compression spring, extension spring, and torsion spring.
Compression spring has the advantages of large energy storage, low compression height, large compression capacity, stable stiffness, simple structure, and wide application. It is mainly used for buffering, vibration reduction, energy storage, and control movement in mechanical equipment, and is applicable in devices with relatively small installation space such as engine valve mechanism, clutch, and automatic transmission.
The performance and characteristics of extension springs are the same as those of compression springs. It is mainly used in situations under tensile load, such as application in overload safety devices of coupling.
Torsion spring is mainly used for compression and energy storage as well as the elastic link in the transmission system to bear the torsional load. It has a linear characteristic and is used for the dynamometer and forced air valve closing mechanism.
2. Parameters Of Spring
(1) Wire diameter (d): diameter of wire winding spring.
(2) Inner diameter (D1), outer diameter (D2), and pitch diameter (D) :
The diameter of the spring inner ring is called the inner diameter, the diameter of the spring outer ring is called the outer diameter, and the average value of the inner diameter and outer diameter of the spring is called the pitch diameter, D=(D1+D2)/2.
(3) The pitch of the spring (t):
The axial distance of the section centerline of the two adjacent coils except for the support rings at both ends.
(4) Number of supporting rings (nZ), the effective number of rings (n), and the total number of rings (n1):
In order to make the spring uniformly stressed, both ends shall be tightened and ground flat. The tightly ground rings are only used for support and positioning and are called support rings. There are three types of spring support rings: 1.5, 2, and 2.5, commonly 2.5. Except for the support ring, all other rings participate in the stress deformation and maintain the same pitch, which is called the effective number of rings. The effective number of rings n=the total number of rings n1 – the number of support rings nZ.
(5) Free height (H0): height of spring without load.
(6)Stretched length of spring wire (L): the length of steel wire used for winding the spring.
3. Marking Of Spring
The end coils of the spring are divided into two types:
Type A which is both ends are tightly ground and type B which is both ends are tightly forged.
Example of spring marking:
YB spring, wire diameter Φ30mm, spring pitch diameter Φ150mm, free height 300mm, manufacturing accuracy grade 3, material 60Si2MnA, surface painted spring which can be left-handed or right-handed, LH or RH shall be indicated when the direction of rotation is required.
Mark as: YB 30x150x300 GB/T 2089-2003
YA spring, wire diameter Φ1.2mm, spring pitch diameter Φ8mm, free height 40mm, manufacturing accuracy class 2, the material is class B carbon spring steel wire, surface galvanized.
Marked as: YA 1.2x 8×40-2 GB/T 2089-2003
This article mainly introduces the classification, parameters, and marking of springs. When engaged in design work, the standard spring shall be selected as far as possible, and non-standard springs can be designed under special circumstances. KENENG is the leading spring manufacturer of a variety of standard and customized springs. With the advantage of high quality, long life, and high strength, are widely used in transportation equipment, hardware, machinery, instruments, household appliances, and other markets. We are also an industrial spring manufacturer. We can manufacture all types of Compression, Extension, and Torsion springs, Square springs, Wire bending springs, R Clips, and metal stamping springs. If you are interested in our products, please feel free to contact us.