What Is Drilling Machine

Drilling Machine Definition

A drilling machine is an equipment that uses a tool that is harder and sharper than the target to leave a cylindrical hole or hole on the target by means of rotary cutting or rotary extrusion. Capable of cutting round holes in metal, wood, plastic or other solid materials.

There are various operations that can be performed on a drilling machine, such as step drilling, core drilling, plane drilling, boring, counterboring, countersinking, reaming, spot facing, tapping, and trepanning.


Parts of a Drilling Machine

Drilling machine base: For machines, the drilling machine base may be affixed to a work table or anchored to a workshop floor.

Column: The column joins the base, table, and head of a drilling machine and is often a hollow, cylindrical structure. Additionally, the column functions as a linear slide on which the table is raised and lowered. Once it is in the correct place, the table clamps to the column.

Arm: at the top of the column, carries the drill head and the housing of the driving mechanism.

Drill head: a feed and drive mechanism that is positioned on one side of the arm. It can rise and fall.

Worktable: The table gives the workpiece a stable surface. It can be lifted or lowered to change the distance between the drill bit and the workpiece.

Spindle: Rotates in a fixed position inside a sleeve while holding the drill or cutting instrument.

Chuck: situated on the spindle, holds the drill jig.

Feed mechanism: hand and automatic feed by an electrical motor.

Electric Motor: The electric motor either directly drives the spindle through a gearbox or indirectly through a network of belts and pulleys. Either the machine’s base or the column’s top can accommodate the electric motor.

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Drilling Machine Types

  • Portable Drilling Machine
  • Sensitive Drilling Machine
  • Radial Drilling Machine
  • Upright or Column Drill Machine
  • Gang Drilling
  • Multi-Spindle Drilling
  • Vertical Turret Type Drilling
  • Automatic Drilling Machine
  • Deep hole Drilling
  • Turret Drilling
  • Automatics Drilling Machine.

1. Portable Drilling Machine:

A portable drilling machine is one that has a small electric motor within that powers the drill bit’s rotation. The use of portable machines is most advantageous when the task at hand cannot be transported to the workshop because of their size or weight.

2. Sensitive Drilling Machine:

To feed the tool into the workpiece, the sensitive drilling machine simply includes a hand-feed mechanism. Because of this, the operator can feel how the drill is cutting and adjust the down feed pressure accordingly.

This machine is a lightweight, straightforward bench-type tool intended for light-duty operations.

3. Radial drilling machine

The drill head, spindle, and feed mechanism can all move radially along the arm of a radial drilling machine, which has its spindle positioned on an arm that can be rotated around the column. Without having to move the workpiece, the operator of this machine can drill in different places.

4. Column or Upright Drilling Machine:

The main distinction between an upright or column drill and a sensitive drill machine is the employment of a power feeding mechanism to rotate the drill. Heavy work is best suited for this equipment.

5. Gang Drilling Machine:

It is especially helpful when many operations, such as drilling, counterboring, reaming, etc., are required to drill holes of various sizes.

6. Drilling device with many spindles:

The Multi-spindle drilling machine has numerous spindles mounted on a single head to enable the simultaneous drilling of numerous holes.

7. Machine for vertical turret drilling

A vertical turret type drill machine consists of a turret that holds a variety of tools in any order you choose, including drill, ream, spot-face, counterbore, and tap.

8. Machine for Automatic Drilling:

An automatic drill machine is typically employed in settings with higher production levels. They consist of a number of unit heads with single or multiple spindles in angular, vertical or horizontal positions on various combinations on a special case.

9. Machine for drilling deep holes:

Such holes that are longer than three times the drill size are drilled using drilling machines.

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Working Principle of Drilling Machine

To make cylindrical holes in a workpiece, a drilling machine rapidly rotates a tool bit before lowering it there at a predetermined tool speed and feed rate.

Using vises and clamps, the workpiece must be firmly held in position on the drill table while drilling. The drill is typically mounted vertically on drilling machines.

There are some specialty drills that can drill horizontally. The part must be moved if drilling in a different orientation is necessary. Depending on the cutting tool or material being used, the machine speed can be changed.


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